Below you will find information on the photographs in the  upcoming book "Gettysburg to Vicksburg: The Five Original Civil War Battlefield Parks" These duo toned black and white photographs include scenes from  Gettysburg, Antietam, Shiloh, Vicksburg and Chickumauga.

Titles and Captions

Gettysburg to Vicksburg: The Five Original Civil War Battlefield Parks
Photographs by A. J. Meek and Narrative by Herman Hattaway

REVISED 9/5/99

Click on a Location to View Information of the Photographs from that Area.


1.) Monument: Gen. Lloyd Tilghman. C:S.A.
Born January 18,1818 near Claiborne, Maryland he attended West Point and graduated 46th in the class of 1836. Formerly commander of Fort Henry he was taken prisoner and was exchanged in the fall of 1862. He served at Corinth, Vicksburg, and during the battle of Champion Hill while directing artillery fire he was struck in the chest and killed.

2.) Landscape: Gnarled Cedar Tree and Overgrown Shrubs. 
Located near the Jackson Road.

3.) View of Battlefield: Union Gun Emplacements.
The Union army favored longer ranged, more accurate rifle barreled cannon.

4.) Monument: Bust of Brig. Gen. Stephen Burbridge. U.S.A. 
Ties in both North and South, a business in Georgetown (D.C.) and a plantation owner in Kentucky he distinguished himself at Shiloh. Was promoted to Major General for repulsing John Hunt Morgan's Ohio Raid. He resigned from military service December 1865.

5.) View of Battlefield: Union Lines.
Looking west and located on Union Ave near the Minnesota Monument.

6.) View of Battlefield: A Strange Place. Overgrown Trees and Shrubs. 
Located near Sherman's Circle.

7.) View of Battlefield: Railroad Tracks.
The Railroad was always a strategic point in the landscape of battle. It was a vital supply link to Vicksburg.

8.) Vicksburg Courthouse.
A museum today, the courthouse was an important landmark that could be seen from the river.

9.) View of Battlefield: Thayer's Approach. Union Protective Tunnel.
The Confederate army held the high ground from a fortress-like hill. It was a good position for sharpshooters to pick off Union soldiers. This tunnel was built
to protect the Union soldiers from fire and to later prepare them for an assault up the hill.

10.) View of Battlefield: Thayer's Approach. Union Protective Tunnel. Looking South.
In the line of fire from Confederate troops, this tunnel is the opposite view of the preceding photograph.

11.) View of Battlefield: Confederate Heights Overlooking Thaver's Approach.
John Milton Thayer Major General U.S.A. was born in Bellingham, Massachusetts on January 24,1820. He moved to the Nebraska territory in 1854. He commanded troops during the Vicksburg campaign and those troops were repulsed by Confederate forces holding high ground. By a miracle a handful of Union troops made it to the top of the hill but were quickly killed or captured. Thayer survived the war and was appointed governor of Wyoming Territory and he also served as Governor of Nebraska from 1886 to 1892.

12.) View Of Battlefield: Cannon Display and Confederate Lines. 
Dense overgrowth and a cannon overlooks deep ravines. The line was never breached by Union forces. The South favored the shorter-ranged smooth bore cannon. They were lighter and easier to maneuver in long marches. They were available, cheap, and could be loaded with canister and used as large shot guns at short range against an advancing foe.

13.) Landscape: Trees and Vines along Union Avenue
Photograph depicts the dense underbrush that has grown along the union lines. The battle began as an assault and ended in a siege. Vicksburg was a natural fortress buttressed by the high bluffs along the Mississippi River to the west and deep ravines and hills to the east.

14.) Monument: Bust of Brig. Gen. Isham Garrott. C.S.A.
Born in Anson City, North Carolina, 1816, he graduated as an attorney from North Carolina University in 1840. He helped form the 20th Alabama and was appointed its colonel. He took command of Brig. Gen. Edward D. Tracy's Brigade after the death of its leader. Bored with duty in the besieged city of Vicksburg, Col. Garrott borrowed a soldiers rifle and took a place on the skirmish line and was killed while inspecting an outpost by a Union sharpshooter. His promotion to Brig. General arrived several days later.

15.) View of Battlefield: Fort Garrott.
Located on high ground this Confederate readout was never taken in battle although its seizure was attempted many times. Named after Brig. General Isham Garrott.

16.) Landscape: Trees and Shrubs near Fort Garrott.
Located on Confederate Avenue near Hovey's Approach. Gen. Lavin Peterson
Hovey born near Mount Vernon, Indiana, in 1821. Before the war he had a distinguished career as a circuit judge and a U.S. District Attorney. He served conspicuously at Vicksburg, especially Champion Hill. After the war he practiced law, spent five years as U.S. minister to Peru, sat in the House of Representatives, and served as the governor of Indiana. He died in office at Indianapolis in 1891.

17.) View of Battlefield: Trees and Monuments on Jackson Road. 
Monuments adorn the old Jackson Road. Only a portion of the former road remains.

18.) View of Battlefield: Logan's Approach.
Concluding that a direct attack would result in failure, Grant ordered troops to undermine the work and set explosives to it. Two mines were detonated and both failed to break the Confederate line.

19.) View of Battlefield: Logan's Approach #2

20.) Monument: Gen. John Alexander Logan. U.S.A.
Born in Jackson City, Illinois, February 9,1826, Logan was known as a political general. He resigned his congressional seat in 1861 and raised a regiment and joined Grant's army at Cairo and fought with distinction. After the war he resumed his political career and ran unsuccessfully for vice president. He was active in veterans organizations and wrote extensively about the war.

21.) Monument: Mai. Gen. U.S. Grant.
Commander of Union Army at Vicksburg and elected President of the United States twice from 1869-77. A man who had failed in business proved to be the most successful and relentless General of the Union Army in the Civil War. He was victorious at Vicksburg and then was promoted to General in Chief after his victory at Chattanooga. He accepted Lee's surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865.

22.) Monument: Bust of Gen. Nathan Kimball. U.S.A.
Born in Fredricksburg, Indiana, November 22,1822, he attended what is now DePauw University and taught school at Independence, Missouri. He farmed and studied medicine under the supervision of his brother in law a local physician. Losing a command at Antietam but regaining it later. He was wounded at Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg. After recovery he led a Corps at Vicksburg. He survived the war and spent time in local government in Indiana before he headed west and became surveyor general of Utah and postmaster of the city of Ogden where he died in 1898.

23.) Monument: Bust of Mai. Gen. Robert Potter. U.S.A.
Born in Schenectady, New York in July 16,1829 he was the son of an Episcopal Bishop and grandson of a university president. He studied law and passed the bar. While a New York attorney, his wife died tragically. With a young daughter he joined the New York Rifles militia as a private at the beginning of the Civil War and by October 1861 he was appointed as a Major of the 51st New York. He distinguished himself at Antietam where he helped to break the bottleneck at the Burnside Bridge. He went on to fight at Vicksburg and Petersburg. His division was the former coal miners who dug the tunnel that led to the Battle of the Crater. At Petersburg he received a debilitating wound and was mustered out of service in 1866. He spent his remaining years in poor health and died on his estate In Newport, Rhode Island in 1887.

24.) Monument: Bust of Brig. Gen. William Sooy Smith. U.S.A.
Born in Tarlton, Ohio, July 22,1830, he graduated University of Ohio in 1849. He entered West Point to work in his engineering degree. Working as an engineer at the start of the Civil War he joined 13th Ohio Infantry. He won distinction at Shiloh but was disgraced later leading a large cavalry force south toward Meridian, Mississippi. It was known as the Sooy Smith Expedition and angered Sherman and embarrassed Smith. He was defeated by a inferior force led by Confederate General Nathen B. Forrest. He resigned in poor health in 1864. After the war Smith became world renown for his bridge and foundation designs. He retired to Medford, Oregon and died there in 1916.

25.) Monument: 68th Ohio Infantry.

26.) View of Battlefield: Old Graveyard Road.
The Federals failures to overrun this fortification was a major factor in Grant's decision to avoid any more direct assaults on Vicksburg.

27.) View of Battlefield: Old Graveyard Road. #2

28.) Monument: Woods and Illinois Memorial.

29.) Landscape: Thicket and Monument.

30.) Monument: Interior of Illinois Monument.
Modeled after the Pantheon in Rome this monument has an open roof which lets a circle of light play across the list of heroes names inscribed on its walls.

31.) View of Battlefield: Fence and Hill Fort Fortifications.

32.) View of Mississippi River from Fort Hill.
This view of the river in 1864 was different. Since then, the river has changed course leaving a marshy rivulet today. Formidable, this fortress was never challenged other than by navel bombardment.

33.) Monument: Bust of Brig. Gen. Edward D. Tracy. C.S.A.
Born in Macon, Georgia November 5,1833, he left his home to establish a law practice in Huntsville, Alabama. He became interested in politics and began his Civil War service as a captain of the 4th Alabama. His horse was shot out from underneath him at Shiloh and in 1862 he was promoted to Brig General. After desperate fighting, the Confederates he was leading broke in defeat and opened the way for Grant to position his armies to siege Vicksburg. He died at Port Gibson shot through the heart and fell not uttering a sound.

34.) Monument: Bust of Col. Thomas Waul. C.S.A.
Born in Sumter District, South Carolina.. January. 5,1813, Waul studied at South Carolina College for three years leaving to teach school in Florence, Alabama. He moved to Vicksburg where he was admitted to the bar in 1835. He established himself in Gonzales City, Texas, opened a law practice, and ran a successful plantation. He dove into politics and failed to win a seat in the Confederate Congress but he raised a legion and was commissioned colonel of the unit in 1862. He served in Vicksburg and was promoted in rank to Brig. General. After the surrender he was exchanged and fought again at Jenkin's Ferry where he finished his service. He survived the war and returned to law practice in Galveston and retired to his farm near Greenville where he died in 1908.

35.).) Monument: Bust of Gen. H. T. Walker. C.S.A.
Born Augusta, Georgia, November 26,1816, he was the son of a U.S. Senator and entered West Point at age 16. He became one Georgia's most esteemed soldiers. He was wounded in the Seminole's war and again later fighting in the Mexican war. He was an instructor of tactics at West Point from 1854 to 1856 but resigned his commission as Major to enter the Confederate army being promoted to Brig. General a short time later. He served under the command of General J. Johnston and the Army of Tennessee in the Mississippi campaign. He served gallantly at Chickamauga. He was killed in battle defending Atlanta from Sherman in 1864.

36.) Tree Overlooking Vicksburg City Cemetery

37.) Monument: Gen. John C. Pemberton. C.S.A.
Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on August 10,1814, Pemberton the Defender of Vicksburg entered West Point in 1833 and displayed a deep love for the South advocating southern political ideals and making friends with Southern cadets. He married a woman from Virginia further adding to his southern ties. He joined the Confederate army while his two brothers remained loyal to the Union cause. He commanded the Confederate army at Vicksburg and surrendered to U.S. Grant, July 4,1863. Because he was originally from the North, he was highly criticized for this loss of Vicksburg suspected of treason by Southern legislators and never regained his former military command status. He accepted a demotion to Col. of Artillery. He survived the war and eventually returned to his native Pennsylvania where he died in 1881.

38.) View of Battlefield: Shadow of Pemberton. Pemberton Circle. 
Pemberton's long shadow is cast over the battlefield.

39.) Monument: Cannon and Tree. Site of Vicksburg Surrender. 
General John C. Pemberton surrendered his Vicksburg Army of 29,000 to Grant under this tree July 4, 1963.

40.) Landscape: Tree Trunk Bordering the Vicksburg Military Park National Cemetery
Vicksburg contains three old cemeteries. One is the National Cemetery where Union soldiers were buried. However, in recent years it was discovered that Confederate soldiers have been mistakenly buried there. The Confederate dead were taken the city cemetery located a few miles from the battlefield. Located within the boundary of the military park is a Jewish cemetery the site of fighting. This cemetery is often mistaken for the Vicksburg City cemetery.

41.) Monument: Confederate Dead Memorial. Vicksburg City Cemetery.
Most of the defenders of Vicksburg are buried here, soldier and civilian alike. The cemetery is segregated by military rank, officer's and enlisted men.

42.) Monument: Confederate Dead Memorial (Detail).

43.) Monument: Gen. Stephen D. Lee Statue.
Born in Charleston, South Carolina, on September 22,1833, he entered West Point and graduated in 1854. He fought at Vicksburg, Champion Hill and after a prisoner exchange the Atlanta Campaign. Wounded on the retreat from Nashville he returned to duty during the final Carolina's Campaign and was surrendered in 1865. After the war he was active in the United Confederate Veterans, promoted women's rights, worked for the preservation of the Vicksburg battlefield sites and wrote history. He died in Vicksburg in 1908.


44.) Monument: Confederate Soldiers at the Base of the Lee Monument.
Often a rag tag unit of mismatching uniforms and many without shoes, the Confederate units were tough and battle-wise veterans of many victories.

45.) Monument: John Burns. Citizen Soldier
Born in Pennsylvania 1789, a veteran of the War of 1812, Burns worked as a cobbler at Gettysburg. So incensed at the Confederate invasion his country, he took up arms against the invaders and took a position on the front line. He was wounded three times fighting with the Iron Brigade during the war and later decorated by President Lincoln in 1863. He died in 1872.

46.) Monument: 96th Penn Infantry. Tree Trunk. Double Day Ave.
A tree trunk was often a symbol of death in the past century. This tree holds a soldier's pack and other items an infantryman may have kept as part of his equipment. The monument stands where the unit fought on the first day of battle northwest of Gettysburg.

47.) View of Battlefield: Lutheran Theological Seminary
The tower at the Seminary was used as an observation position first by the Union army and then by the Confederates. It overlooks much of the battlefield.

48.) Monument: Grave Marker of Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds.
Born Lancaster, Pennsylvania, September 20,1820, few officers on the Army of the Potomac earned greater respect than Reynolds. He graduated from West Point in 1837 and served in the Mexican War. On July 1,1863, Reynolds commanding the Vanguard I, II, and Xl corps reached Gettysburg mid morning. He quickly brought in his infantry to replace his cavalry who were out gunned by Confederate infantry. He was killed by a Confederate sharpshooter near this location on the first day of fighting.

49.) Monument: Draped Obelisk. 12th Massachusetts Volunteers.

50.) Landscape: Railroad and Monuments West of the Town of Gettysburg.
The railroad leading into Gettysburg was an important strategic consideration. The monuments on the battlefield look like giant chess pieces.

51.) Monument: 1st N.J. Cav. East Cav. Field.
This remote battlefield is located east of the town of Gettysburg. General J. E. B. Stuart, C.S.A., was ordered to flank the Union rear but was defeated in a cavalry engagement led by Brig. General David McM Gregg, U.S.A., July 3, 1863.

52.) Monument: 78th & 102 N.Y. Infantry. CuIp's Hill.
CuIp's Hill, a favorite spot for residents of Gettsyburg to picnic became the tip of the fish hook Union line at Gettysburg. it was extremely important strategic position guarding and protecting Cemetery Hill and Cemetery Ridge.

53.) Monument: 13th N.J. Vols.. CuIp's Hill.
The 12th N.J. was on the line and played a major role in repulsing Pickett's charge. CuIp's Hill was a feint attack but played an important outcome of the battle of Gettysburg.

54.) Monument: 149th N.Y. Infantry. CuIp's Hill.

55.) Monument: 86th N.Y. Infantry. CuIp's Hill.

56.) I Yield Him Unto His Country and His God. (Detail) 86th N.Y. Infantry.

63.) Monument: 23rd Penn Vols.. Birney's Zouaves. CuIp's Hill. 
Born Huntsville, Alabama, May 29,1825, David Bell Birney, Maj. General, U.S.A., a southerner Birney became one of the most zealous enemies of slavery. His brother William also became a Union General. He was practicing law in Philadelphia when he organized the regiment and dressed them in Zouave uniforms in August 1861. He resumed command of Sickles division when Sickles was wounded at the peach orchard. In 1864 Birney fell ill and went home to Philadelphia where he died suddenly. His last words were deliriously spoken, "Keep your eyes on that flag, boys."

57) Field of Monuments: CuIp's Hill.

58.) View of Battlefield: Cannon DisDIav. Cemetery Hill.

59.) View of Battlefield: Below East Cemetery Hill. Statues and Trees.

60.) View of Battlefield: Trees and Monuments. Atop Cemetery Hill.
The routed remains of two Union corps spilled onto Cemetery Hill late in the afternoon of the first day of fighting. Maj. General Winfield Hancock restored order and prepared a defensive position. The hill anchored the northern end of Cemetery Ridge the center of the Union line. A Confederate attack came late at twilight but in the darkness after the Confederates were repulsed the Union held the ground. 

61.) Monument: Alabama Memorial.
From this position, Longstreet massed his Alabama army to attack Little Round Top in echelon or oblique order. This tactic deployed troops in waves of attack toward the enemy. The Alabama troops had never suffered defeat before this day.

62.) Monument: Celtic Cross. Irish Brigade. N.Y. Infantry.
Irish Catholics were formed into units and fought on both sides. This unit made some of the most daring charges of the war from the Bloody Lane at Antietam to Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg. This monument is located near the Wheat Field where the Brigade fought.

63.) Monument: Tent. 32nd Mass Infantry. the Loop.
A tent usually contained more than one man. This pup tent suggests a memorial for the dead soldier to have of shelter as a final resting place.

64.) Monument: Dying Soldier. 118th Pennsylvania lnfantry. Irish Brigade.
Often considered foreign, Irish Brigades and regiments often took high casualties. It was a common practice that units were recruited by ethnic groups, and entire villages and towns were in the same regiment.

65.) Monument: 5th Michigan Infantry. Devil's Den.
Colonels were: Henry D. Terry, Samuel E. Beach, and John Pulford. Battles fought included: Manassas, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wilderness and Cold Harbor. At Gettysburg the unit was on the left flank of "Sickles Salient" and lost 109 officers and men.

66.) View of Battlefield: Tree and Cannon Display. Devil's Den. 
This cannon display is located on the high ground in Devil's Den. It is pointed toward the confederate lines. Little Round Top and the various monuments may be seen in the back ground. Devil's Den received its name because the locals at one time found a snake there but its name is most appropriate because of the bloody battle that took place there on the second day of fighting at Gettysburg. The confederate forces took and held the ground until they withdrew from combat after their defeat the following day.

67.) View of Battlefield: Site of Timothy O'Sullivan's Photograph. "Rebel Sharpshooter"
Shrouded in the shade from a surrounding forest the view in 1864 was open to light for photographer Timothy O'Sullivan who dragged with the help of an assistant a confederate soldier and placed the corpse in the hollow found here for effect. He titled the photograph, "Rebel Sharpshooter", but the photograph was a complete fabrication of the truth.

68.) Monument: 124th N.Y. Infantry. Above Devil's Den.
The ground is full of boulders and woods. One Union regiment lost half of their number in 25 minutes.

69.) Monument: 99th Penn Infantry. Devil's Den.

70.) Monument: Brig. Gen. Samuel W. Crawford. U.S.A. and Tree Valley of Death.
Born Franklin City, Pennsylvania on November 8, 1829, Crawford graduated from the University of Penn and from its Medical School in 1850. He joined the army as an assistant surgeon and commanded a battery of artillery during the attack on Fort Sumter. His unit suffered 50% casualties at Cedar Mountain. He was wounded at Antietam. He fought at Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spotsyvania and Petersburg. He was praised for gallantry and by the wars end was promoted to the rank of Brig. General He lived in Philadelphia until his death in 1892.

71.) View of Battlefield: Valley of Death.

72.) Monument: Statue of Mai. General William Wells. U.S.A.. Between the Two Round Tops.
Born in Vermont in 1837, he enlisted as a private and was promoted in rank until he received the rank of Maj. General for war service after he was mustered out in 1866. He commanded several cavalry corps and at Gettysburg he was a Major. He survived the war and held several public offices including state senator.

73.) Monument: Detail. Cavalrv Charge. Base of Statue of Mai. William Wells. U.S.A.

74.) Monument: Standing Infantryman in Woods. 10th PA Reserve. Little Round Top.
Colonels were: Included John S. McCalmont, James T. Kirk, and Adoniram J. Warner. Fought: Mechanicsville, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Wilderness, and others. After Fredericksburg the unit stood down for a year until it could recover from fighting and heavy losses. It was mustered out the summer of 1864.

75.) Monument: 83rd Penn Infantry. Little Round Top.
Colonels: John McLane, Strong Vincent both killed in Action and others.
Fought in major battles including Gettysburg, Cold Harbor and Petersburg.
Only one other Federal regiment had more battle casualties than the 83rd.

76.) Monument: Statue of Gen. Gouverneur Kemble Warren. U.S.A.. Atop Little Round Top.
Born in Cold Spring, New York on January 8,1830, Warren graduated from West Point in 1850. At Gettysburg he was chief engineer of the Army of the Potomac. He is credited for saving the day at Gettysburg by taking up position on Little Round Top and forming a defensive position of the critical high ground. However this decisive action was short lived as he was relieved of command later in the war by Gen. Sheridan at Five Forks for indecisive action and mishandling his troops. He survived the war and spend the rest of his army career as an engineer, dispirited and bitter.

77.) View of Battlefield: From Below Facing Little Round Top. 
After the Confederate troops fought to this point, they still had to fight while under fire from the Unions troops above.

78.) View of Battlefield: From Little Round Top.
A commanding view of the battlefield. High ground in a battle has always been coveted since the beginning of armed conflict. Even a small hill the size of a pitcher's mound will give an advantage to a soldier repulsing an enemy in a hand to hand combat.

79.) Monument: 20th Maine. Little Round Top.
Joshua L. Chamberlain newly appointed colonel to the 20th Maine regiment received orders to hold a small wooded hill on the extreme left of the Union line located on Little Round Top. He and his men repulsed repeated Confederate attacks. As Longstreet's Alabamians prepared for one final attack, Chamberlain realized his men had nearly exhausted their ammunition. Refusing to surrender, he led his men in a bayonet charge that flanked the Confederates and thus held the position vital for the Union's defense. He was awarded the Medal of Honor thirty years later. After the war he returned to Maine where he was president of his alma mater Bowdoin College, and he also served four terms as Governor of Maine.

80.) Monument: Standing Infantryman. 121st N.Y. Infantry. Little Round Top.
Colonels were: Richard Franchot, Emory Upton and Egbert Olcott. Battles included: Fredericksburg, Wilderness, Petersburg, Cold Harbor, and others. Considered one of the finest officers of the war Colonel Emory Upton gained fame at Spotsyvania. The unit captured four flags at Rappahannock Station.

81.) Monument: Detail of Standing Infantryman Monument. 121st N.Y Infantry. Memorial to Col. Emory Upton.
Born near Batavia, New York August 27,1839, Upton entered West Point after two years of preparation at Oberlin College in Ohio. Wounded at Bull Run after firing the first gun of Blackburn's Ford. He fought at Antietam and Spotslvania's Bloody Angle. An advocate of reform in country's military system he was tormented by violent headaches after the war which led to severe depression. March 15,1881, while at his post at the Presidio in San Francisco, he ended his life by pistol shot.

82.) Monument: Horse and Rider. 8th Penn Cav., Pleasonton Ave. 
Monuments located here featured the cavalryman's horse with much devotion.

83.) View of Battlefield: Cavalrv Monuments and Tree.

84.) Monument: Horse. 2nd N.Y. Cav. (Detail). Pleasonton Ave.

85.) Monument: Horse. 4th N.Y. Cav. (Detail). Pleasonton Ave.

86.) View of Battlefield: Cannon Display and Tree near the Peach Orchard.
Maj. General Daniel E. Sickles on his own initiative abandoned his position of Cemetery Ridge and took up position on what he considered the high ground near the Confederate line. This with General Birney's division formed a vulnerable position that invited an attack. Sickles controversial move unhinged the Union left and threatened the army's position. Fighting resumed to the Wheat Field and Devil's Den.

87.) View of Battlefield: Monuments. Fields of Wheat and Tree.
These fields were the site of some of the most savage fighting at Gettysburg. The 1st Minnesota lost more than 80% of its corps in one counter attack and 500 Confederates lay dead among the trampled wheat, a "harvest of death."

88.) View of Battlefield from Wheatfield Rd.

89.) View of Battlefield: White Wild Flowers from U.S.. Avenue. 
Flowers bloom where men fell and died.

90.) View of Battlefield: Tree and Confederate Lines Facing Union Center Pickett's Charge.
On July 2, the Confederates under the command of Robert E. Lee were convinced that they could break the Union line. They attacked concentrating their efforts on the copse of trees, the only landmark seen through smoke from cannon and rifle shot. The Union devastated the Confederate soldiers led by Maj. General George Pickett leaving 15,000 casualties in their attempt.

91.) Summer Wheat. Site of Pickett's Charge.
In the tree line the Confederate artillery were hidden firing on the Union line a mile in the distance.

92.) View of Battlefield: Copes of Trees. the Angle. Pickett's Charge. 
The landmark in which the Confederate troops focused their attack was the copse of trees seen clearly in the distance. Maj. General George Edward Pickett, C.S.A. was born Richmond, Virginia, January 28,1825. He graduated from West Point in 1846 last in a class of 59. His name in history was secured by leading the ill fated charge that bears his name on the Union center at Gettysburg. His career never eclipsed that day when his regiment was shot to pieces by Union canon and infantry. He remained bitter toward Lee for losing so many of his beloved men. After the war he was an insurance salesman and died in Norfolk in 1875.
93.) View of Battlefield: Confederate Retreat. Pickett's Charge. From this position the defeated Confederate Army walked or limped back to their lines in the distant horizon.

94.) Monument: Fighting Infantryman. 2nd Brigade. Pennsylvania Volunteers. the Angle.
It was at this point that the Union line was breached temporarily by the Confederate forces but by the time they fought their way there the soldiers were exhausted. Reserves were brought up and they were quickly repulsed, being captured or killed.

95.) Monument: Minnesota Monument. Union Center.
Dedicated to 1st Minnesota regiment which had the distinction of the highest regimental loses in any battle, in proportion to the number engaged in modern history. When the Confederates had broken through Sickle's position at the Peach Orchard, the Minnesota regiment lost 215 out of 262 when it counterattacked to restore the Union line.

96.) Monument: Minnesota Infantry Charge. Minnesota Monument (Detail).

97.) Monument: 11th Mass Infantry. Clenched Fist. near Peach Orchard. 
A clenched fist remains defiant. The monument faces Seminary Ridge where the Confederate army massed their attack.

98.) Monument: Gen. A. A. Humphries. U.S.A.. Sykes Ave.
Born in Philadelphia, November 2,1810 graduated from West Point in 1831. 
A man of quiet competence he never received due recognition of his role in winning the war. He retired from military service in 1879 and died in Washington D.C. in 1883.

99.) Monument: Last Rites. Father William Corby.
Chaplain of the Irish Brigade gives last rites to soldiers before going into battle.

100.) Monument: Wounded Comrade. Maryland Memorial.

101.) Monument: Dead Confederate Soldier. (Detail). Louisiana Memorial.

102.) Monument: Confederate High Water Mark.
The most sacred site at Gettysburg this copse of trees denotes the high water mark of the Confederacy. It was these trees that Lee directed his attack toward. It was a landmark that could be clearly seen by troops at the beginning of the charge to break the Union line.

103.) Monument: Statue: Armistad & Hancock. Friend to Friend. Masonic Memorial.
Although this moment portrayed here never happened, Lewis Armistead, Brig. General C.S.A. and Winfield Scott Hancock Brig. General USA were friends before the Civil War and Masonic brothers. Armistad died from wounds received during Pickett's charge and Hancock survived the war unsuccessfully running for the presidency in 1880.

104.) Monument: Lincoln. Penn Memorial.
Abraham Lincoln, Commander-In-Chief and President of the United States hand shows the battlefield. Also a casualty of the war Lincoln visited the battlefield at Gettysburg delivering the Gettysburg Address, November 19,1863.

105.) View of Battlefield: Sunrise Over the Valley of Death.
A tranquil morning in Gettysburg. Adjacent to Devil's Den, the lowlands below
Little Round Top on the second day of fighting was the site of terrible destruction
between both armies.


106.) Row of Stone Men. Regimental Monuments. Rodman Avenue. 
Union army lines organized here for their final attack on Confederate troops.

107.) Broken Thistles.
Symbolizing the bitter and broken armies of both sides.

108.) Monument: 100th Penn Vol. Infantry

109.) Cornfield Road. Mumma Farmhouse.
Burned by the Confederates to prevent Union sharpshooters from harassing the Confederate troops, it was the only civilian property purposely destroyed during the battle.

110.) Roulette Farm.
Union troops led by French and Richardson crossed these fields on their way to engage the Confederates in a defensive position on the Sunken Road.

111.) View of Battlefield: Cornfield and Tree.

112.). View of Battlefield: Distant Barn and Cornfield.
More fighting took place in the Miller Cornfield than anywhere else at Antietam.
The battle lines swept back and forth for three hours.

113.) View of Battlefield. Visitor's Center and the Maryland Monument.

114.) (To Be Determined)

115.) The Bloody Lane. Southeast.

116.) Burnside Bridge from Union Positions.
General Ambrose Everett Burnside was born in Liberty, Indiana, 1824. He was the son of a Southern slave owner and was reared in Indiana where his father had moved the family after freeing his slaves. Burnside graduated from West Point in 1847 and was wounded in a skirmish with Apaches during the Mexican
War. He was easy going and had an attitude toward life that was considered too loose for a commanding officer. He liked to gamble which resulted in poor judgment. He was friends with George McCIeIIen before the war. His delayed action at Antietam and stubborn determination to cross the bridge over Antietam creek cost him dearly. His troops were bogged down crossing the bridge and were fired upon from the rear guard Alabamians dug in above the bridge. The troops eventually crossed a mile downstream but too late to crush the rapidly retreating Confederates. His indecisiveness cost lives again at the Petersburg. After the war he was elected governor of Rhode island three times and to the U.S. Senate where he served until his death in 1881.

117.) View of Burnside Bridge.

118.) * Stone Men. Sikes Avenue.

119.) *The Bloody Lane and Sunken Road. (North)
For four hours Union and Confederate forces contested this sunken road, now named the Bloody Lane. The conflict resulted in over 5,000 casualties.

120.) * The Bloody Lane and Sunken Road. (South)
Opposite view, this sunken road became the site of a terrible battle. At first it offered cover for Confederate soldiers repulsing a Union attack but later became their trap as Union forces poured in to a position that offered a clear shot down the lane. Men died in heaps falling on top of one another on the roadbed. It became known as the bloody lane.

121.) * Infantry Monument and Tree. The Bloody Lane and Sunken Rd.


122.) Dead Tree. Site of Gen. Johnston Death.
A dead tree stump, white from the weather, is the monument that marks the site where General Albert Sydney Johnston was mortally wounded.

123.) Monument: Gen. Albert Sydney Johnston Memorial.
Albert Sydney Johnson, C.S.A., 1803-1862, born in Kentucky, a graduate of West Point, was one of the South's most promising warriors. He was a man of strong physique standing over six feet tall, and had a commanding presence. His death at Shiloh from a mini ball which nicked an artery causing him to bleed to death before he realized he was in mortal danger was a catastrophe for the South.

124.) View of Battlefield: Peach Orchard.
This orchard was in bloom as the Confederates repeatedly charged the Union defensive position. Falling blossoms cut by bullets reminded some observers of falling snow.

125.) The Bloody Pond.
On April 6, this pond offered comfort for both sides as they drank the water and washed their wounds. Many died there. It was a sight to see the men half submerged in the pond, horses, and battle debris all strewn about. It has been reported that the water turned red from the blood. It had a profound effect on anyone who witnessed the scene.

126.) Sunlight. Sky. and Trees near the Bloody Pond.

127.) Site of Union Field Hospital.

128.) Monument: Stuart Memorial.
General David Stuart, U.S.A., 1816-1868, was wounded in the shoulder at Shiloh. He was a lawyer and a congressman.

129.) Monument: McClernand's Hdqrs.
General John Alexander McClernand was born near Hardinsburg, Kentucky, May 30,1812. He attended school and read law settling in Springfield, Illinois established a law practice and entered politics. He rose quickly in the ranks under Grant but never gained the trust that Grant held for West Point graduates. This resentment worked both ways. He survived the war and returned to politics in Illinois where he worked until his death in 1900.

130.) Monument: Iowa Memorial. Sunken Road.

131.) The Hornet's Nest. Sunken Road. (North)
Brig. General Benjamin M. Prentiss's division rallied along a sunken road in a densely wooded thicket. The Confederates charged across a wide field time and time again to dislodge the Union forces. Charge after charge was unsuccessful until sixty-two cannon were brought to bear on the thicket devastating the blue men. Prentiss who know his men could endure no more surrendered his force of 2,000 men in the late afternoon. It was dubbed the "hornet's nest" and the name stuck.

132.) View of Battlefield: The Sunken Road. (South)

133.) *Site of Confederate Graveyard.

134.) *The Hornet's Nest and Sunken Road.

135.) * The Hornet's Nest from Confederate Prospective.

136.) * The Union Cemetery View # One.

137.) *The Union Cemetery View # Two.

140.) *Monument: Memorial to Shiloh Dead.
Shiloh was the first great bloody battle of the war. Union losses were 1,754 killed, 8,408 wounded, and 2,885 captured. Confederate losses were 1,723 killed, 8,012 wounded and 959 missing.

141.) Pittsburg Landing. Union Cemetery and Tennessee River.
Grant crossed the river here at Pittsburg landing.

142.) (*Monument: Union Line.

143.) *View of Battlefield: Oak and Field. Confederate Lines.

144.) *View of Battlefield: Cannon Display. Ruggle's Battery. 
General Daniel Ruggles, C.S.A. born in Barre, Massachusetts, January 31, 1810, married into a wealthy Virginia family and made the South his home. At Shiloh he attacked the "Hornet's Nest" by amassing 62 guns on the Union position with devastating effect. Shiloh proved to be the high point in his military career. After the battle he found himself shuffled into a series of administrative positions in the Army's rear guard. His career rallied when he was appointed commander of eastern Louisiana but was replaced six months later. He was finally appointed head of the Confederate prison system during the last month of the war. Ruggles returned to Virginia after the war and went into real-estate management and died in 1897.

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